Hermaphroditism in Horses

DSC05825
When is a mare not a mare?

South African racing authorities have just reclassified a filly called Tuesday’s Child as a colt after post-race checks showed a raised testosterone count. Nothing to do with dodgy injections or rum dealings: Tuesday’s Child is a male pseudo-hermaphrodite, and he had his breeder, owner and trainer fooled. I’ve actually “met” a horse like this – “Ladyboy” is pictured above* in a group of Konik horses kept by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust for conservation grazing. Like Tuesday’s Child’s owners, the NWT had no idea that the young horse was a hermaphrodite. “She” peed backwards from under her tail and had a small udder, like any filly. However, when she reached the age of two, she began fighting for dominance with the harem’s stallion, and trying to steal mares. She was eventually removed from the group and a veterinary examination revealed that the udder was in fact a scrotum, and that there was a rudimentary penis tucked under his tail. The newly christened Ladyboy was all male, although he was never going to father foals. He was gelded and given his own herd of youngsters to supervise, those solving his own frustrations and that of the main band’s stallion.

26/10/2014 Here’s a news item on a new study on pseudohermaphrodites.

* I admit I can’t remember which one he is…

PS. At the time I was researching If Wishes Were Horses, and looking for early instructions for sidesaddle riding. Browsing an eighteenth-century French manual called Le Nouveau Parfait Maréchal, I found a short chapter on hermaphroditic horses who “urinent fur leur queue” (“urinate through their tail”).

 

New Study Reveals More About Origins of Domestic Horse

Ahem. I am now going to attempt to write a simple account of the findings of a new study into the genetic origins of domestic horses. I’m doing this as much for my benefit as for yours. Hopefully my brother will step in in the comments if I’ve got it all wrong.

Now. Horses.

This is a Przewalski Horse. It is the only true wild horse left in the world, even though this particular one is in West Berlin Zoo. Other “wild horses” like mustangs, brumbies etc are feral domestic horses. Przewalski horses can breed with domestic horses, but they have a different number of chromosomes: Przewalskis have 66, domestic horses 64, and their combined offspring 65.

This is a Tarpan. It’s another true wild horse, but one which is now extinct. It had 64 chromosomes.

This is a Konik – an attempt at recreating the Tarpan by interbreeding domestic horses which have Tarpan ancestors. But I digress.

The evolutionary development of the modern horse has been well documented and explored since the earliest days of genetics and fossil collection. Now geneticists are attempting to work out how we got from “some wild horse that wasn’t the Przewalski” to every single domestic horse in the world today. A paper published today by Alessandro Achilli of the University of Perugia and a large global team of geneticists explores this by investigating the maternal or mitochondrial DNA of a variety of horse breeds from around the planet.

It turns out that there are eighteen major “haplogroups” or, as Wikipedia usefully puts it, “a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor“. A haplotype is a mumble mumble genetic-DNA-sequence-pattern-thing. Ahem. One of these haplogroups belongs to Przewalskis. All of them belong to the Neolithic or later, but radiate from some Ancestral Mare Mitogenome of 130,000–160,000 years ago. Asia is the common source for all these descendants.

SO, the conclusion appears to be that domestication occurred – multiple times, by mankind sourcing different wild mares at different points of history and from different locations – on the Eurasian Steppes from the Eneolithic onwards. The Eneolithic falls between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and might also be called the Copper Age. As there is already a large amount of archaeology linking horse domestication, copperwork and the spread of proto-Indo European in this area, this appears to confirm the theory that the Steppes were the origin of large scale and enduring horse domestication.

This also means that the Saudi Arabians need to come up with a bit more proof for their claim that horse domestication began in the Arabian Peninsula circa 7,000 BC and that there were already Arab-type horses at that period.

The First Appaloosa

From The Local:

An international team of researchers led by a German scientist believe they have found the first evidence that spotted horses, often seen depicted in cave paintings, actually existed tens of thousands of years ago.
“We are just starting to have the genetic tools to access the appearance of past animals and there are still a lot of question marks and phenotypes for which the genetic process has not yet been described,” said study leader Melanie Pruvost of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and the Department of Natural Sciences at the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. “However, we can already see that this kind of study will greatly improve our knowledge about the past.”

The spots on the cave horses were previously believed to have been a depiction of some kind of shamanic vision, rather than reality.

The unravelling of the equine genome continues to fascinate. In the last two hundred years there have been many theories about the number and range of “Ur horse” types or breeds, with the dun takhi/Przewalski and the mouse-grey tarpan having the best archaeological records. Now there’s a new cave horse, and it’s an appaloosa.

Detailed article here, in the NYT.

Hunting Horses

Dance of the Cave Horse: a Przewalski at the West Berlin Zoo

Geoff Nicholson sent me a snippet from an interview with German director Werner Herzog on his new 3D documentary, Cave of Forgotten Dreams. In the film, Herzog explores the Paleolithic paintings in the Chauvet cave in the Ardèche, a fine-drawn menagerie that includes horses, rhinos, big cats and mammoths. Yesterday in the library I was poring over photographs of the equines, trying to work out if they were  Equus ferus przewalskii or Equus ferus ferus – Tarpans, the much-disputed “other” wild horse of prehistory,  usually associated with the Western Steppes and Central or Eastern European forests. I think they were the former. Rats. I need to see some paleolithic Tarpans.

Stone Age humans ate a lot of horses, as we know from Solutré, where a vast collection of horse bones were found; for a long time it was believed that the hunters had driven the horses off a cliff and collected the smashed remains, but now the theory is that migrating animals were instead herded into a natural “corral” and picked off. Herzog has obviously been reading up:

“I would hunt a horse,” said Herzog, in a recent interview with The Plain Dealer. “A deer zigzags, but a horse runs straight, so with two or three men you could chase him into a ravine or into a deep hole that you’d cover up so he’d fall in.”

Does he know that’s exactly what happened to the last free-running  Tarpan? Specimen hunters accidentally chased the poor mare off a cliff and into a ravine in the late nineteenth century. Previously Equus ferus ferus had been the game animal of game animals in the Polish forest of Bialowieski. In the twentieth century the Poles “reconstituted” a kind of Tarpan from domestic horses bred near or in the forest who had Tarpan traits and ancestors: a breed now called the Konik:

Up close and personal with Marek, one of the Norfolk Wildlife Trust's Konik stallions

Nina’s Filly

Last summer I was lucky enough to be introduced to one of the Norfolk Wildlife Trust’s herds of Konik ponies, who are busy doing conservation work by stuffing themselves silly on grass, rushes, and tree leaves. The material wasn’t right for If Wishes Were Ponies, but I hope to use it in future work. Meantimes, here’s one of the fillies, who snuck up on me to sniff my elbow. I like the way she’s posed here on a tussock like a miniature “Wild Stallion on the Outcrop”.

Konik youngster at Thompson's Common