The Daddies of Them All: How Arab and Turkoman Stallions Dominate the Gene Pool

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A team at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, has discovered that nearly all today’s horses* trace tail-male back to Arabian and Turkoman stallions brought to Europe over the last seven centuries (yes, pre-thoroughbred). There is so little diversity in domestic horses’ Y chromosomes that it took an advance in research methods to be able to distinguish between the limited lines out there. Researchers will even be able to designate haplotypes for single stallions, which is how they discovered the Turkoman great great great great great great (times a few more) grandsires of today’s thoroughbreds. Here’s a link to their research.

The fact that in modern times we humans chose to use a small number of stallions to improve our horses makes an interesting contrast to a study published in April on the early years of horse domestication (from 3,500BC on). When I was working on The Age of the Horse, I believed the current research, which suggested that very few stallions were involved in the process of turning wild horses into stockier, faster, more colourful and higher milk-yielding domestic horses. The study team revealed that the opposite was true. In fact, we began our working relationship with horses with plenty of stallions and lots of Y chromosome and haplotype diversity. You can see the study here. Then the bottleneck narrowed as we discovered intensive breeding and those fancy Oriental stallions.

 

 

*I would be curious to know which modern breeds were used in this study. Would the results be different for Mongolian horses?

 

 

Mustangs for Your Ears


Deanne Stillman’s Mustang: The Saga of the Wild Horse in the American West came out in 2008 and remains definitive. It takes you from the arrival of the first Conquistadors’ horses – like Pedro de Alvarado’s “bright bay mare” “good both for tilting and to race” and the grey “Bobtail” who was “fast, and had a splendid mouth” – to the politicking of the Bush years when America’s wild horses once more came under threat. It will give you some pointers about their fate in the next four years, too. Her next book, Blood Brothers, flows out of it and tells the story of Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill. Simon and Schuster will publish in the autumn.

Those of you who like books but have to fit them into a life that includes school runs, commutes, housework, an exercise schedule and/or poo-picking might be interested in the audio version of Mustang. It features the voices of Anjelica Huston, Frances Fisher, Wendie Malick, Richard Portnow and John Densmore.

Scandal! Did the Icelandic tölt come from England?

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William Blake’s take on Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. The Wife of Bath rides an ambler,

Researchers at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research (IZW) in Berlin have announced a fascinating discovery in the history of gaited horses. By studying the genomes of ninety horses that lived between the Copper Age and the eleventh century, they have traced the spread of the fifth equine gait or amble. This builds on the recent discovery (read about it here) that a mutation to gene DMRT3 causes horses to tölt or pace.

According to the scientists, ambling, tölting or pacing horses seem to have originated in England in the ninth century and were then taken to Iceland by the Vikings and on to the rest of Europe and Asia.

I’m curious about this as I’m pretty sure some Mongolian horses amble, and I didn’t know they were descended in any way, shape or form from Viking horses. Also, pre-horse hipparions were pacers.

Here’s the details of the paper: Wutke S, Andersson L, Benecke N, Sandoval-Castellanos E, Gonzalez J, Hallsson  JH, Lembi L,  Magnell O, Morales-Muniz A, Orlando L, Pálsdóttir AH, Reissmann M, Muñioz-Rodríguez MB, Ruttkay M, Trinks A, Hofreiter M, Ludwig A (2016): The Origin of Ambling Horses. CURR BIOL 26, 697-698. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.001.

 

Trump, Stein or Clinton? How Would Your Horse Vote in 2016?

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Theodore Roosevelt in patriotic mode. Via Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/item/2013651643/

I thought it would be interesting to compile the horse welfare promises of this year’s US presidential candidate promises. Which platform is best for your horse?

Hillary Clinton, Democrats

“As president, Hillary will …

Protect horses by ending the slaughter of horses for human consumption and cracking down on the practice of horse soring, in which chemicals or other inhumane methods are applied to horses’ limbs to exaggerate their gait.”

(Bernie Sanders co-sponsored the SAFE Act, which aims to close the last loop hole that enables US horses to be sent to slaughter. He also opposed soring)

Donald Trump, Republicans

I couldn’t find anything on Trump’s website about horses.

Jill Stein, Greens

I couldn’t find anything on Stein’s website about horses.

Gary Johnson, Libertarian Party

I couldn’t find anything on Johnson’s website about horses.

Darrell Castle, Constitution Party of the US

I couldn’t find anything on Castle’s website about horses.

Tom Hoefling, America’s Party/American Independent Party

I couldn’t find anything on Hoefling’s website about horses.

Bob Whitaker, American Freedom Party

I couldn’t find anything on Whitaker’s website about horses.

Scott Copeland, Constitution Party of Idaho

I couldn’t find anything on Copeland’s website about horses.

Gloria LaRiva, Party of Socialism and Liberation

I couldn’t find anything on LaRiva’s website about horses.

Lynn Kahn, Peace and Freedom Party

I couldn’t find anything on Kahn’s website about horses.

Jim Hedges, Prohibition Party

I couldn’t find anything on Hedge’s website about horses.

Ed Chlapowski, Reform Party

I couldn’t find anything on Chlapowski’s website about horses.

Emidio “Mimi” Soltysik, Socialist Party

I couldn’t find anything on Soltysik’s website about horses.

Alyson Kennedy, Socialist Workers Party

I couldn’t find anything on Kennedy’s website about horses.

Chris Keniston, Veterans Party of America

I couldn’t find anything on Keniston’s website about horses.

Monica Moorehead, Workers’ World Party

I couldn’t find anything on Moorehead’s website about horses.

(I had to stop at this point but there are also a plethora of independent candidates, should your horse choose to explore their platforms)

CONCLUSION: your horse is voting for Hillary Clinton.

The Pony Who Needed a New Shoe

The following instance of animal intelligence is sent to us by Dr. John Rae, F.R.S., who states that the Mr. William Sinclair mentioned is respectable and trustworthy. The anecdote is taken from the ‘Orkney Herald’ of May 11:—”A well-authenticated and extraordinary case of the sagacity of the Shetland pony has just come under our notice. A year or two ago Mr. William Sinclair, pupil-teacher, Holm, imported one of these little animals from Shetland on which to ride to and from school, his residence being at a considerable distance from the school buildings. Up to that time the animal had been unshod, but some time afterwards Mr. Sinclair had it shod by Mr. Pratt, the parish blacksmith. The other day Mr. Pratt, whose smithy is a long distance from Mr. Sinclair’s house, saw the pony, without halter or anything upon it, walking up to where he was working. Thinking the animal had strayed from home, he drove it off, throwing stones after the beast to make it run homewards. This had the desired effect for a short time; but Mr. Pratt had only got fairly at work once more in the smithy when the pony’s head again made its appearance at the door. On proceeding a second time outside to drive the pony away, Mr. Pratt, with a blacksmith’s instinct, took a look at the pony’s feet, when he observed that one of its shoes had been lost. Having made a shoe he put it on, and then waited to see what the animal would do. For a moment it looked at the blacksmith as if asking whether he was done, then pawed once or twice to see if the newly-shod foot was comfortable, and finally gave a pleased neigh, erected its head, and started homewards at a brisk trot. The owner was also exceedingly surprised to find the animal at home completely shod the same evening, and it was only on calling at the smithy some days afterwards that he learned the full extent of his pony’s sagacity.”

Nature, May 19, 1881, quoted in George John Romanes’ Animal Intelligence.